- From MW150126 - The Political Imperative.pdf: Social economies ( community sector): aim to serve their members/community, instead of just profit; not private or public; democratic and participatory for users and workers; priority to people and employment rather than Capital in the distribution of revenue and surplus; based on principals of participation, empowering | enabling, individual and collective responsibility.
- From Transforming or Reforming Capitalism - Chapter 2 - Ghorayshi, Gradon, Kliewer "Towards a Social Theory in Community Economic Development: Idealizing Community in the Era of Globalization": Local community efforts in North America date to early 20th centurywarning.pngThe date "early 20th century" was not understood. settler communities, losing their popularity in in the 1950s - 1960swarning.pngThe date "1950s - 1960s" was not understood. due to a surge in capitalism. By the Temporal:1980s, globalization, post-industrialism and neo-liberal policies, promoted market players and supported by government, had deprecated welfare state ideals. Civil society, in forms such as NGOs, CDCs, CD, CED, CDIO, micro-enterprise, micro-lending, PRA, etc emerged in support of local development and empowerment, with an assumption they could support good social services. Successes have included fighting the economic problems of exclusion, and time dollar banks.
- From Transforming or Reforming Capitalism - Chapter 2 - Ghorayshi, Gradon, Kliewer "Towards a Social Theory in Community Economic Development: Idealizing Community in the Era of Globalization": The chapter discusses what CED is, whether it can be a solution; the history of local empowerment, how CED has worked, that different definitions and strategies are used. The inconsistent notion of community is discussed. The potential that current CED may counter-productively contribute to neo-liberal capitalism is discussed, with transformative CED, meant to disrupt and challenge, presented as a solution.