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  • From Shared Space Chapter 2 - Organizing for complexity: Employment has improved since the 1990s, but social programs, in decline since the mid-1970s"mid-1970s" contains an extrinsic dash or other characters that are invalid for a date interpretation., do not address problems brought on by ongoing unemployment and poverty, as well as new problems, such as lack of benefits or adequate pay for more "flexible" work forces (part time, contract, self employed, minimum wage), and working mothers. This lack of support lead to continued cycles of poverty and lost economic opportunities.
  • From Shared Space Chapter 1 - Reaching for Resilience: The concept of clusters originated in research in the 1960s, with Michael Porter's 1990s sector-based form, focused on geography, informal relationships, and supporting institutions. In the communities agenda framework, the social dimension of communities is the result of related geographic clusters that are synergistic networks of activity, which thrive due to proximity.